The full-length dietary questionnaire was originally developed by Dr. Gladys Block at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), for research into the role of diet in health and disease, and since that time it has been continually updated and improved. The questionnaire was developed in a scientific and data-based way, and has been extensively studied and validated. It is in use by over 700 research and public health groups, in university and public health settings all around the country.
The following list of publications provides information on the development, testing and validation of the questionnaires we provide – both dietary assessment tools and physical activity assessment tools. In addition, this reference list includes other publications on dietary data by Dr. Block and coworkers, as well as other useful references.
Below are the standard references related to the development and validation of earlier versions of Block food frequency questionnaires. Methodology used to determine which foods to include in later versions of the full-length food frequency questionnaire was validated in these earlier studies. The first two references describe methodology for questionnaire development. The second two describe validation of earlier versions of the questionnaire; these are the most commonly cited references relating to the validation of the full-length Block questionnaires.
A validation study conducted by Amy Subar at the National Cancer Institute (NCI compared the Block 95, the Harvard questionnaire, and a 36-page questionnaire that NCI developed.) Ref: Subar AF, Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Hurwitz P, McNutt S, McIntosh A, Rosenfeled S. Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires: The Eating at America's Table Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:1089-99.
More recently, two validation studies have been conducted using modified versions of the full-length Block 98 FFQ. Ref: (1) Boucher B, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N, Nadalin V, Block T, Block G. Validity and reliability of the Block98 food-frequency questionnaire in a sample of Canadian women. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1):84-93. (2) Johnson BA, Herring AH, Ibrahim JG, Siega-Riz Am. Structured measurement error in nutritional epidemiology; applications in the Pregnancy, Infection, and nutrition (PIN) Study. J Am Stat Assoc. 2007; 102(479):856-866.
Boeckner LS, Pullen CH, Walker SN, Abbott GW, Block T. Use and reliability of the world wide web version of the Block health habits and history questionnaire with Older rural women. J Nutr Ed and Behavior. Mar-Apr 2002; 34:S20-S24.
There are no published validation studies including the current Block Brief 2000 FFQ. On development and validation of an earlier version of the Brief, refer to: Block G, Hartman AM, Naughton D. A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiol 1990; 1:58-64.
Lalonde L. Graham M, Slovinee-D'Angelo M, Beaton L, Brown J, Block T. Validation of the Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Setting. Scientific Poster Presentations: Saturday, October 25, 2008. Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation (CACR) Annual Meeting and Scientific Abstracts: October 24-26, 2008, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Block G, Gillespie C. Rosenbaum EH, Jenson C. A rapid food screener to assess fat and fruit and vegetable intake. Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18(4):284-288.
Cummings SR, Block G, McHenry K, Baron RB. Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126:796-802.
Clifford A J, Noceti EM, Block-Joy A, Block T, Block G. Erythrocyte folate and its response to folic acid supplementation is assay dependent in women. J Nutr. 2005 Jan; 135(1):137-43.
The Block Soy Foods Screener was based on published literature values. Ref: (1) Reinli K, Block G. Phytoestrogen content of foods - a compendium of literature values. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:123-48. (2) Pillow PC, Duphorne CM, Chang S, et al. Development of a database for assessing dietary phytoestrogen intake. Nutr Cancer 1999;33:3-19. A larger questionnaire that incorporated most of the foods used in the screener was validated in: Huang M-H, Harrison GG, Mohamed MM, et al. Assessing the accuracy of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for estimating usual intake of phytoestrogens. Nutr Cancer 2000; 37:145-54.
The standard Block Kids 2004 FFQ was included in a validation study conducted by researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine. Ref: Cullen KW, Watson K, Azkievi I. Relative reliability and validity of the Block kids questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. J Amer Diet Assoc. 2008;108:862-866.
Upon request, you can obtain an abstract describing an unpublished validation study conducted on an earlier version of the Block Kids food frequency questionnaire, which involved 74 subject aged 8 to 10 years. Ref: Block G, Murphy M, Roulett JB, Wakimoto P, Crawford PB, Block T. Pilot validation of a FFQ for children 8-10 years. Abstract presented at Fourth International Conference on dietary Assessment Methods. 2000.
Two other recent studies have included the Block Kids FFQ in examination of validity: (1) Marshall TA, Eichenberger Gilmore JM, Broffitt B, Stumbo PJ, Levy SM. Relative validity of the Iowa fluoride study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the Block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Mar;108(3):465-72. (2) Smith C, Fila S. Comparison of the kid's Block food frequency questionnaire to the 24-hour recall in urban Native American youth. Am J Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 18(5):706-9.
Hunsberger M, O'Malley J, Block T, Norris JC. Relative validation of Block Kids Food Screener for dietary assessment in children and adolescents. Matern Child Nutr. 2012:1-11. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00446.x.
Block G, Jensen CD, Block TJ, Norris J, Dalvi TB, Fung EB. The work and home activities questionnaire: energy expenditure estimates and association with percent body fat. J Physical Activity and Health. 2009;6 (Suppl 1):S61-69.
Drahovzal DN, Bennett TM, Campagne PD, Vallis TM, Block TJ. Comparison of the Block Child Activity Screener with an Objective Measure of Physical Activity. Poster session at annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), July 18, 2003
Numerous epidemiologic studies have been conducted using the Block/NCI Questionnaire. The following references only include studies in which the developers of the Block/NCI Questionnaire and Nutrition DISCovery were involved.
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