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Our Research: Questionnaires

The full-length dietary questionnaire was originally developed by Dr. Gladys Block at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), for research into the role of diet in health and disease, and since that time it has been continually updated and improved. The questionnaire was developed in a scientific and data-based way, and has been extensively studied and validated. It is in use by over 700 research and public health groups, in university and public health settings all around the country.

The following list of publications provides information on the development, testing and validation of the questionnaires we provide – both dietary assessment tools and physical activity assessment tools. In addition, this reference list includes other publications on dietary data by Dr. Block and coworkers, as well as other useful references.

Development and Validation of Block FFQs and Screeners

Full-length Block Food Frequency Questionnaires

Below are the standard references related to the development and validation of earlier versions of Block food frequency questionnaires. Methodology used to determine which foods to include in later versions of the full-length food frequency questionnaire was validated in these earlier studies. The first two references describe methodology for questionnaire development. The second two describe validation of earlier versions of the questionnaire; these are the most commonly cited references relating to the validation of the full-length Block questionnaires.

  1. Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124:453-469.
  2. Block G, Coyle LM, Hartman AM, Scoppa SM. Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1190-1196.
  3. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL, Fisher MR, Freudenheim JL. A diet history questionnaire ranks nutrient intakes in middle-aged and older men and women similarly to multiple food records. J Nutr 1993; 123:489-501.
  4. Block G, Woods M, Potosky A, Clifford C. Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records. J Clin Epidemiol 1990; 43:1327-1335.

Validation of the Block 95 FFQ

A validation study conducted by Amy Subar at the National Cancer Institute (NCI compared the Block 95, the Harvard questionnaire, and a 36-page questionnaire that NCI developed.) Ref: Subar AF, Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Hurwitz P, McNutt S, McIntosh A, Rosenfeled S. Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires: The Eating at America's Table Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:1089-99.

Validation of the Block 98 FFQ

More recently, two validation studies have been conducted using modified versions of the full-length Block 98 FFQ. Ref: (1) Boucher B, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N, Nadalin V, Block T, Block G. Validity and reliability of the Block98 food-frequency questionnaire in a sample of Canadian women. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1):84-93. (2) Johnson BA, Herring AH, Ibrahim JG, Siega-Riz Am. Structured measurement error in nutritional epidemiology; applications in the Pregnancy, Infection, and nutrition (PIN) Study. J Am Stat Assoc. 2007; 102(479):856-866.

Reliability of Web-based Block 98 FFQ

Boeckner LS, Pullen CH, Walker SN, Abbott GW, Block T. Use and reliability of the world wide web version of the Block health habits and history questionnaire with Older rural women. J Nutr Ed and Behavior. Mar-Apr 2002; 34:S20-S24.

Brief Block FFQ

There are no published validation studies including the current Block Brief 2000 FFQ. On development and validation of an earlier version of the Brief, refer to: Block G, Hartman AM, Naughton D. A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiol 1990; 1:58-64.

Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener

Lalonde L. Graham M, Slovinee-D'Angelo M, Beaton L, Brown J, Block T. Validation of the Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Setting. Scientific Poster Presentations: Saturday, October 25, 2008. Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation (CACR) Annual Meeting and Scientific Abstracts: October 24-26, 2008, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Block Rapid Food Screeners - Dietary Fat and Fruit-Vegetable-Fiber

Block G, Gillespie C. Rosenbaum EH, Jenson C. A rapid food screener to assess fat and fruit and vegetable intake. Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18(4):284-288.

Block Calcium/Vitamin D Screener

Cummings SR, Block G, McHenry K, Baron RB. Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126:796-802.

Block Folic Acid/Dietary Folate Equivalents Screener

Clifford A J, Noceti EM, Block-Joy A, Block T, Block G. Erythrocyte folate and its response to folic acid supplementation is assay dependent in women. J Nutr. 2005 Jan; 135(1):137-43.

Block Soy Foods Screener

The Block Soy Foods Screener was based on published literature values. Ref: (1) Reinli K, Block G. Phytoestrogen content of foods - a compendium of literature values. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:123-48. (2) Pillow PC, Duphorne CM, Chang S, et al. Development of a database for assessing dietary phytoestrogen intake. Nutr Cancer 1999;33:3-19. A larger questionnaire that incorporated most of the foods used in the screener was validated in: Huang M-H, Harrison GG, Mohamed MM, et al. Assessing the accuracy of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for estimating usual intake of phytoestrogens. Nutr Cancer 2000; 37:145-54.

Block Kids 2004 FFQ

The standard Block Kids 2004 FFQ was included in a validation study conducted by researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine. Ref: Cullen KW, Watson K, Azkievi I. Relative reliability and validity of the Block kids questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. J Amer Diet Assoc. 2008;108:862-866.

Upon request, you can obtain an abstract describing an unpublished validation study conducted on an earlier version of the Block Kids food frequency questionnaire, which involved 74 subject aged 8 to 10 years. Ref: Block G, Murphy M, Roulett JB, Wakimoto P, Crawford PB, Block T. Pilot validation of a FFQ for children 8-10 years. Abstract presented at Fourth International Conference on dietary Assessment Methods. 2000.

Two other recent studies have included the Block Kids FFQ in examination of validity: (1) Marshall TA, Eichenberger Gilmore JM, Broffitt B, Stumbo PJ, Levy SM. Relative validity of the Iowa fluoride study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the Block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Mar;108(3):465-72. (2) Smith C, Fila S. Comparison of the kid's Block food frequency questionnaire to the 24-hour recall in urban Native American youth. Am J Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 18(5):706-9.

Block Kids Food Screener

A validation study including the Block Kids Food Screener is now underway at the Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; no publications are yet available. An evaluation study comparing the Block Kids 2004 FFQ and the Block Kids Food Screener has been completed and submitted for publication by the Social and Health Research Center, San Antonio, Texas.

Development of Block Physical Activity Assessment Tools

References related to development of Block physical activity assessment tools include:

  1. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32:S498-S504.
  2. Dong L, Block G, Mandel S. Activities contributing to total energy expenditure in the United States: results from the NHAPS Study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2004 Feb 12;1(1):4.
  3. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: 2002. [Also published as Trumbo P, Schlicker S, Yates AA, Poos M. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Nov;102(11):1621-30. Erratum in: J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 May;103(5):563.]
  4. Jackson AS, Stanforth PR, Gagnon J, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Bouchard C, Wilmore JH. The effect of sex, age and race on estimating percentage body fat from body mass index: The Heritage Family Study. Intl J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Jun;26(6):789-796.

References related to the Validation of Block physical activity assessment tools include:

  1. Block Adult Energy Expenditure Survey

    Block G, Jensen CD, Block TJ, Norris J, Dalvi TB, Fung EB. The work and home activities questionnaire: energy expenditure estimates and association with percent body fat. J Physical Activity and Health. 2009;6 (Suppl 1):S61-69.

  2. Block Kids Physical Activity Screener

    Drahovzal DN, Bennett TM, Campagne PD, Vallis TM, Block TJ. Comparison of the Block Child Activity Screener with an Objective Measure of Physical Activity. Poster session at annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), July 18, 2003

More Articles on Development and Validation of Block Assessment Tools

Diet Questionnaire Development References

  1. Block G. A review of validations of dietary assessment methods. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 115:492-505.
  2. Block G, Dresser CM, Hartman AM, Carroll MD. Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. I. Vitamins and minerals. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122:13-26.
  3. Block G, Dresser CM, Hartman AM, Carroll MD. Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. II. Macronutrients and fats. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122:27-40.
  4. Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124:453-469.
  5. United States Department of Agriculture. Human Nutrition Information Service. Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared (Revised Handbooks # 8-1, Dairy and Egg Products-1976 to # 8-21, Fast Foods - 1988). Nutrition Monitoring Division. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1976-1988.
  6. Public Use Data Tape Documentation, Model gram and Nutrient Composition, Tape Numbers 5702 and 5703, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland, 1982.
  7. Smucker R, Block G, Coyle L, Harvin A, Kessler L. A dietary and risk factor questionnaire and analysis system for personal computers. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129:445-449.
  8. Block G, Coyle LM, Hartman AM, Scoppa SM. Revision of dietary analysis software for the Health Habits and History Questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1190-1196.
  9. Block G, Hartman AM, Naughton D. A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiol 1990; 1:58-64.
  10. Block G, Clifford C, Naughton MD, Henderson M, McAdams M. A brief dietary screen for high fat intake. J of Nutr Educ 1989; 21:199-207.

Validation Studies: Full Block Questionnaire Compared with Multiple Diet Records

  1. Block G, Woods M, Potosky A, Clifford C. Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records. J Clin Epidemiol 1990; 43:1327-1335.
  2. Block G, Thompson FE, Hartman AM, Larkin FA, Guire KE. Comparison of two dietary questionnaires validated against multiple dietary records collected during a 1-year period. J Am Diet Assoc 1992; 92:686-693.
  3. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL, Fisher MR, Freudenheim JL. A diet history questionnaire ranks nutrient intakes in middle-aged and older men and women similarly to multiple food records. J Nutr 1993; 123:489-501.
  4. Sobell J, Block G, Koslowe P, Tobin J, Andres R. Validation of a retrospective questionnaire assessing diet 10-15 years ago. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130:173-187.
  5. Block G, DiSogra C. WIC Dietary Assessment Validation Study, Final Report. Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room 607, Alexandria, VA 22302. [Validation, self-administered, in low-income white, African-American and Hispanic women. Journal manuscript in preparation.]

Validation Studies: Full Block Questionnaire Estimates Compared with Biomarkers

  1. Coates RJ, Eley JW, Block G, Gunter EW, Sowell AL, Grossman C, Greenberg RS. An evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamin E among low-income Black women. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134:658-671.
  2. Sinha R, Block G, Taylor PR. Determinants of plasma ascorbic acid in a healthy male population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 1992; 1:297-302.
  3. Sinha R, Patterson BH, Mangels AR, Levander OA, Gibson T, Taylor PR, Block G. Determinants of plasma vitamin E in healthy males. Cancer Epidemilogy, Biomarkers and Prevention 1993;2:473-479.
  4. Greendale GA, FitzGerald G, Huang MH, Sternfeld B, Gold E, Seeman T, Sherman S, Sowers M. Dietary soy isoflavones and bone minearl density: results from the study of women's health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Apr 15;155(8):746-54. (
  5. Huang MH, Harrison GG, Mohamed MM, Gorbein JA, Henning SM, Go VL, Greendale GA. Assessing the accuracy of a food frequency questionnaire for estimated usual intake of phytoestrogens. Nutr Cancer: 2000;37(2):145-54.

Validation Studies: Abbreviated Instruments or Brief Screening Tools

  1. Block G, Hartman AM, Naughton D. A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiol 1990; 1:58-64.
  2. Cummings SR, Block G, McHenry K, Baron RB. Evaluation of two food frequency methods of measuring dietary calcium intake. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126:796-802.
  3. Nieves JW, Golden AL, Siris E, Kelsey JL, Linsay R. Teenage and current calcium intake are related to bone mineral density of the hip and forearm in women aged 30-39 years. Am J Epidemiol 1995;141:342-51. [Modified 35-item version, emphasizing calcium sources.]
  4. Coates RJ, Serdula MK, Byers T, Mokdad A, Jewell S, Leonard SB, Ritenbaugh C, Newcomb P, Mares-Perlman J, Chavez N, Block G. A brief telephone-administered food frequency questionnaire was found useful for surveillance of dietary fat intake in humans. J Nutr 1994.
  5. Serdula M, Coates R, Byers T, Mokdad A, Jewell S, Chavez N, Mares-Perlman J, Newcomb P, Ritenbaugh C, Treiber F, Block G. Evaluation of a brief telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse study populations. Epidemiology 4:455-463, 1993.

Reliability/Repeatability Studies

  1. Leighton J, Neugut AI, Block G. A comparison of face-to-face food frequency interviews with telephone interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128:891. (Abstract).
  2. Hartman AM, Block G, Chan W, Williams J, McAdams M, Banks Jr. WL, Robbins A. Reproducibility of a self-administered diet history questionnaire over different seasons. Nutr Cancer 1996

Descriptive Data on Dietary Factors by the Developers of Block Questionnaires

  1. Pickle LW, Hartman AM. Indicator foods for vitamin A assessment. Nutr Cancer 1985; 7:3-23.
  2. Block G, Dresser CM, Hartman AM, Carroll MD. Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. I. Vitamins and minerals. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122:13-26.
  3. Block G, Dresser CM, Hartman AM, Carroll MD. Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. II. Macronutrients and fats. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122:27-40.
  4. Block G, Lanza E. Dietary fiber sources in the United States by demographic group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 79:83-91.
  5. Lanza E, Jones DY, Block G. Dietary fiber intake in the U.S. population. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46:790-797.
  6. Block G. Nutrient sources of carotene in the American diet. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:290-293.
  7. Block G, Sorenson A. Vitamin C intake and dietary sources by demographic characteristics. Nutr Cancer 1987; 10:53-65.
  8. Mares-Perlman JA, Subar AF, Block G, Greger JL, Luby MH. Zinc intake and sources in the U.S. adult population: 1978-1980. 1995 (In press).
  9. Murphy SP, Subar AF, Block G. Vitamin E intakes and sources in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52:361-367.
  10. Kant AK, Block G. Dietary vitamin B-6 intake and food sources in the U.S. population: NHANES II, 1976-1980. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52:707-716.
  11. Subar AF, Block G, James LD. Folate intake and food sources in the U.S. population. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50:508-516.
  12. Block G, Norris JC, Mandel RM, DiSogra C. Sources of energy and six nutrients in the diets of low-income Hispanic-American women and children: Quantitative data from the HHANES survey, 1982-1984. J Am Dietet Assoc 1995;95:195-208.
  13. Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Eley W, Jones DP, Gunter EW, Byers TE, Block G, Greenberg RS. Dietary glutathione intake in humans and the relation between intake and plasma glutathione level. Nutr Cancer 1994;21:33-46.
  14. Jones DP, Coates RJ, Flagg FW, Eley JW, Block G, Greenberg RS, Gunter EW, Jackson B. Glutathione in food listed in the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 1992:17:57-75.
  15. Block G, Abrams B. Vitamin and mineral status of women of childbearing potential. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 678:244-254.
  16. Block G. Antioxidant intake in the U.S. J Toxicology and Ind Health 1993; 9:295-301.
  17. Block G, Rosenberger WF, Patterson BH. Calories, fat, and cholesterol: intake patterns in the U.S. population by race, sex and age. Am J Public Health 1988; 78:1150-1155.
  18. Block G, Subar AF. Estimates of nutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire: The 1987 National Health Interview Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 1992; 92:969-977.
  19. Kant AK, Block G, Schatzkin A, Ziegler R, Nestle M. Dietary diversity in the U.S. population: NHANES II, 1976-80. J Am Diet Assoc 1991; 91:1526-1531.
  20. Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Block G, Ziegler R, Nestle M. Food group intake patterns and associated nutrient profiles of the U.S. population. J Am Diet Assoc 1991; 91:1532-1537.
  21. Patterson BH, Block G. Food choices and the cancer guidelines. Am J Public Health 1988; 78:282-286.
  22. Patterson BH, Block G, Rosenberger WF, Pee D, Kahle LL. Fruit and vegetables in the American diet: data from the NHANES II survey. Am J Public Health 1990; 80:1443-1449.
  23. Block G, Cox C, Madans J, Schreiber GB, Licitra L, Melia N. Vitamin supplement use, by demographic characteristics. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 127:297-309.
  24. Subar AF, Block G. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements: demographics and amounts of nutrients consumed. The 1987 Health Interview Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132:1091-1101.
  25. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL, Freudenheim JL, Luby MH. Nutrient supplements contribute to the dietary intake of middle- and older-aged adult residents of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. J Nutr 1993; 123:176-188.
  26. Dickinson VA, Block G, Russek-Cohen E. Supplement use, other dietary and demographic variables, and serum vitamin C in NHANES II. J Am Col Nutr 1994;13:22-32.
  27. Block G, Mangels AR, Levander OA, Patterson BH, Campbell W, Norkus E, Taylor PR. Plasma reduced and oxidized ascorbate attained on various levels of dietary intake. FASEB J 1991; 5:A1444 (Abstract).
  28. Mangels AR, Block G, Frey CM, Patterson BH, Taylor PR, Norkus EP, Levander OA. The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid. J Nutr 1993; 123:1054-1061.
  29. Mangels AR, Block G, Levander OA, Taylor PR, Morris VC, Patterson BH. Differences in plasma beta-carotene (P-BC) maintained despite similar dietary beta-carotene. FASEB J 1991; 5:A1322 (Abstract).
  30. Vanderslice JT, Higgs D, Hayes JM, Block G. Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid content of food-as-eaten. J Food Comp and Anal 1990; 3:105-118.
  31. Sinha R, Block G, Taylor PR. Determinants of plasma ascorbic acid in a healthy male population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 1992; 1:297-302.
  32. Sinha R, Patterson BH, Mangels AR, Levander OA, Gibson T, Taylor PR, Block G. Determinants of plasma vitamin E in healthy males. Cancer Epidemilogy, Biomarkers and Prevention 1993;2:473-479.
  33. Sinha R, Block G, Taylor PR. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57:547-550.

Epidemiological Research

Numerous epidemiologic studies have been conducted using the Block/NCI Questionnaire. The following references only include studies in which the developers of the Block/NCI Questionnaire and Nutrition DISCovery were involved.

  1. Block G, Patterson B, Subar A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutr Cancer 1992; 18:1-29.
  2. Gridley G, McLaughlin JK, Block G, Blot WJ, Winn DM, Greenberg RS, Schoenberg JB, Preston-Martin S, Austin DF, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Diet and oral and pharyngeal cancer among blacks. Nutr Cancer 1990; 14:219-225.
  3. Gridley G, McLaughlin JK, Block G, Blot WJ, Gluch M, Fraumeni JF. Vitamin supplement use and reduced risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135:1083-1092.
  4. Harlan LC, Coates RJ, Block G, Greenberg RS, Ershow A, Forman M, Austin DF, Chen V, Heymsfield SB. Estrogen receptor status and dietary intakes in breast cancer patients. Epidemiol 1993; 4:25-31.
  5. Hyman L, He O, Grimson R, Oden N, Leske MC, Schachat AP, Block G and Risk Factors Study Group. Nutritional factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD): results of a case-control study. International Journal of Eye Research 1991; (Abstract).
  6. Jones DY, Schatzkin A, Green SB, Block G, Brinton LA, Ziegler RG, Hoover R, Taylor PR. Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 79:465-471.
  7. Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, Ziegler RG, Block G. Dietary diversity and subsequent mortality in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57:434-440.
  8. McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Block G, Winn DM, Preston-Martin S, Schoenberg JB, Greenberg RS, Stemhagen A, Austin DF, Ershow AG, Blot WJ Fraumeni JF. Dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988; 80:1237-1243.
  9. Schiffman MH, Andrews AW, Van Tassell RL, Smith L, Daniel J, Robinson A, Hoover RN, Rosenthal J, Weil R, Nair PP, Schwartz S, Pettigrew H, Block G, Batist G, Shaw R, Wilkins T. A case-control study of colorectal cancer and fecal mutagenicity. Cancer Res 1989; 49:3420-3424.
  10. Taylor P, Schiffman M, Jones DY, Judd J, Schatzkin A, Nair PP, Van Tassell R, Block G. Relation of changes in amount and type of dietary fat to fecapentaenes in premenopausal women. Elsevier 1988; 206:3-9.
  11. Block G. The data support a role for antioxidants in reducing cancer risk. Nutr Rev 1992; 50:207-213.
  12. Block G. Vitamin C and cancer prevention: The epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:270S-282S.
  13. Block G, Menkes M. Ascorbic acid in cancer prevention. In: Moon TE, Micozzi MS., eds. Diet and Cancer Prevention. Investigating the Role of Micronutrients. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1989; 341-388.

Methodological Issues and Reviews

  1. Block G. Dietary assessment issues related to cancer for NHANES III. In: Briefel RB, Sempos CT, eds. Dietary Methodology Workshop for the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Series 4, No. 27, 1992; 24-31.
  2. Block G, Hartman AM. Issues in reproducibility and validity of dietary studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50:1133-1138.
  3. Block G, Sinha R, Gridley G. Collection of dietary supplement data and implications for analyses. Am J Clin Nutr 1994:59:232S-239S.
  4. Fox TA, Heimendinger J, Block G. Telephone surveys as a method for obtaining dietary information: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 1992; 92:729-732.
  5. Hartman AM, Block G. Dietary assessment methods for macronutrients. In: Micozzi MS, Moon TE, Eds. Macronutrients Investigating their Role in Cancer. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1992; 87-124.
  6. Hartman AM, Brown CC, Palmgren J, Pietinen P, Verkasalo M, Myer D, Virtamo J. Variability in nutrient and food intakes among older middle-aged men: implications for design of epidemiologic and validation studies using food recording. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132:999-1012.
  7. Kipnis V, Freedman LS, Brown CC, Hartman A, Schatzkin A, Wacholder S. Interpretation of energy adjustment models for nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137:1376-1380.
  8. Potosky A, Block G, Hartman AM. The apparent validity of diet questionnaires is influenced by number of diet-record days used for comparison. J Am Diet Assoc 1990; 90:810-813.
  9. Wacholder S, Schatzkin A, Freedman LS, Kipnis V, Hartman A, Brown CC. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:848.
  10. Balogh M, Medalie JH, Smith H, et al. The development of a dietary questionnaire for an ischemic heart disease survey. Isr J Med Sci 1968;4:195-203.

Additional References

  1. Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
  2. Block G, Hartman AM. Understanding the results of epidemiologic studies. Seminars in Oncology 1983; 10:257-263.
  3. Berkman LF and Syme SL. Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda county residents. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 109:186-204.
  4. Carriquiry AL, Jensen HH, Dodd KW, Nusser SM, Guenther PM, Fuller WA. Estimating usual nutrient distributions. Submitted to Am J Clin Nutr 1993.
  5. Chug-Ahuja JK, Holden JM, Forman MR, Mangels AR, Beecher GR, Lanza E. The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1993; 93:318-323.
  6. Mangels AR, Holden JM, Beecher GR, Forman MR, Lanza E. Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: An evaluation of analytic data. J Am Diet Assoc 1993; 93:284-296.
  7. Doll R and Peto R. The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 66:1191-1308.
  8. Gordis L. Assuring the quality of questionnaire data in epidemiologic research. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 109:21-24.
  9. Lilienfeld AM and Lilienfeld DE. Foundations of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1980; pp. 14 and 291.
  10. NHANES II, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland, 1976-1980.
  11. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Cancer Epidemiology Supplement, Section H: Smoking Habits, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland, 1992.
  12. Walker AM, Blettner M. Comparing imperfect measures of exposure. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121:783-790.
  13. Beaton GH, Milner J, Corey P et al. Sources of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:2456-2559.
  14. Liu K, Stamler J, Dyer A et al. Statistical methods to assess and minimize the role of intra-individual variability in obscuring the relationship between dietary lipids and serum cholesterol. J Chron Dis 1978;31:399-418.
  15. National Cancer Institute. DIETSYS Version 3.0 User's Guide, Dietary Analysis System.